Classification and selection of common disinfectants
Novel coronavirus pneumonia is an acute infectious pneumonia. Most of the early symptoms of patients develop into fever, dry cough, fatigue, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and even death. Its pathogen is a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), with a mortality rate of 4%, and it is highly infectious, mainly through respiratory foam, contact transmission, aerosol transmission, etc. There is currently no specific treatment, so preventing infection is the most important treatment. The "General Guidelines for the Prevention of Pneumonia from New Coronavirus Infection" pointed out: Individuals must maintain hand hygiene. After touching public goods, wash your hands with disinfectant cleaners. Items and the environment are usually disinfected. Disinfect the bathroom and toilet surfaces, and disinfect public supplies more than 1 to 2 times a day. It is recommended to use chlorine-containing disinfectant and peracetic acid disinfectant.
1. Classification of disinfectant
Common disinfectants include physical disinfection (ultraviolet, high temperature, ionizing radiation, etc.) and chemical disinfection. Physical disinfection is greatly restricted in many cases, and chemical disinfectants are more widely used because of their fast, simple, and economical characteristics. Chemical disinfectants are mainly used for skin, mucous membranes, wounds, environment, articles, etc., acting on pathogens, etc., affecting the physiological activities of enzyme systems and proteins, and aiming to destroy the physiological functions of pathogens and prevent and control death.
The commonly used chemical disinfectants mainly include five categories: alcohol, chlorine disinfectant, phenol, quaternary ammonium salt, and iodine disinfectant.
2. Commonly used disinfectant.
1, alcohol disinfectant
The main representative product is ethanol 75%. Its mechanism of action is to dehydrate pathogenic microorganisms or dissolve the outer membrane of viral lipids, thereby killing bacteria or eliminating viruses. However, studies have shown that the effective concentration must be above 75%, so 75% alcohol can kill bacteria and viruses at the same time. 75% alcohol disinfectant can be used in a variety of scenarios: Skin disinfection: A study shows that 75% alcohol cotton balls are disinfected for one minute, and the pass rate of hand hygiene is 98.6% on average. Surface disinfection of objects: A study found that 75% alcohol disinfects the surface of objects, and the average number of viable bacteria is 3 cfu/cm2, which meets the standard. The advantages of 75% alcohol disinfectant: cheap, easy to obtain, safe, and can be used for skin and mucous membrane disinfection. The disadvantage is that alcohol is flammable, safety hazard, and not long volatile. Because once sprayed, the concentration cannot reach 75%, so it can only be used to disinfect the skin and props. It must be prohibited to spray and disinfect the house, air, environment and other large areas to ensure safety.
2, chlorine disinfectant
The main representative products are 84 disinfectant (sodium hypochlorite), 84 disinfectant, and a mixed solution of sodium hypochlorite and sodium chloride when disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite. Action mechanism of 84 disinfectant: It has strong oxidizing properties, oxidizes bacteria/virus nucleic acid substances, and kills bacteria and viruses.
3, phenol disinfectant
The main representative product is chloro-m-xylenol (drops, Verus), which is a broad-spectrum fungal antibacterial agent, which has killing effect on most bacterial propagules and fungi. Antibacterial effect, but no indestructible effect on the virus.
4, four seasons ammonium salt disinfectant
The main representative product is benzene chlorofluorocarbon, which is a salt cationic surfactant. Benzalchlorofluorocarbon is a dual-function disinfectant that can kill bacteria/fungus and destroy viruses.
5. Iodine-containing disinfectant
The main products currently include iodine and povidone-iodine. It is an efficient Lite-On disinfectant that can kill bacteria, spores, a few viruses (DNA viruses), bacteriophages, mycobacteria, protozoa, fungi and other pathogens.